There are two types of pain:

  • acute occurs suddenly. Its duration is usually limited.
  • chronic pain lasts for a long time.

A person who has been experiencing pain for a long time behaves differently than one for whom pain is a new sensation. People who suffer pain for a long time may not moan, do not show motor anxiety, their heart rate, and respiration may be normal, but the patient’s restrained behavior does not mean that he does not experience pain.

The channels and manifestations of pain are complex. In the formation of pain, many components take part. The weakening of the body’s systems, in chronic disease, can be caused by factors such as depression or a pessimistic mood, inadequate sleep, prolonged use of drugs without sufficient indications.

Feeling the pain, waiting for its intensification, a person experiences not only unpleasant physical sensations but also suffers mentally. Suffering is a mental response to pain or a psychological component of pain. This component can often prevail over true (physical) pain.

When a person experiences chronic pain, he is constantly forced to limit himself to something. Some actions familiar to him become difficult or inaccessible.

It is not always possible to completely get rid of severe pain, but you can learn to reduce it to a tolerable level.

When regulating pain, one must strive to introduce it within reasonable limits and avoid emergency situations when it becomes unbearable. Indeed, many diseases at different stages are accompanied by pain.

In most cases, the cause of chronic pain is formations that change the structure and function of organs and tissues.

But pain can also be provoked by other causes. For example, abdominal discomfort may result from stool retention; joint pain is caused by chronic arthritis; pain behind the sternum is a manifestation of heart disease, etc. In other words, the patient “has the right” to exacerbate his chronic pain and “acquire” new diseases.

Often the pain is the result of radiation therapy or surgical treatment. This is due to trauma to the nerve fibers, their involvement in the cicatricial process, compression with the development of limb lymphocytosis, etc.

Treatment of chronic pain

The treatment of chronic pain will always be successful if you follow a few mandatory rules:

  • if the doctor prescribes painkillers for chronic pain, then they should be used according to the recommendations.
  • chronic pain requires regular timely use of analgesics.
  • the dose of pain killers and the intervals between doses are selected in such a way as to maintain a steady concentration in the blood and to avoid increasing pain at these intervals. In this case, the allowable daily dose of drugs should not be exceeded.

The primary concern is night pain relief because a poorly spent night inevitably entails a “bad” day. During a 7–8-hour sleep during the night, one should strive to maintain a concentration of analgetic in the patient’s blood sufficient to block pain receptors.

If necessary, this is achieved by taking a slightly larger or double dose of the pain medication immediately before bedtime. If necessary, you can take an extra dose of anesthetic at night.

If the pain appears when the time for the next administration of the drug has not yet come, it is urgent to take an extraordinary dose of pain medication. Then, take the medicine according to the scheme at the appropriate time.

Do not wake up the patient if it is time to take pain medication, and he is sleeping. The missed dose is given immediately upon awakening; the circuit may shift a little.

A number of drugs in the first days from the beginning of administration can cause an increase in general weakness, drowsiness. During the first 4-5 days from the start of taking drugs, hallucinations, some confusion, nausea may develop. All these symptoms are short-term. They are successfully improved by therapy correction. In case the side effects do not disappear, the doctor can replace the analgesic with another one at an appropriate dose.

During the visits, the doctor asks the patient questions regarding the pain he experiences. The intensity of pain is determined by the patient himself. It is very important the patient speaks frankly about his pain. Some patients tend to understate the pain degree.

Do not be afraid that a patient experiencing severe pain will become dependent on narcotic drugs used for a long time. After all, he takes the medicine with the goal of anesthesia, and not in order to cause new sensations. Opiates are used by the body mainly in the field of pain receptors. This means that the patient does not become dependent on them even with long-lasting use.

Depending on the severity of the pain syndrome, the doctor prescribes one of the three options of the anesthesia developed by the World Health Organization.